SHARE any of equal parts into which the money of a business company is divided, giving the holder a right to a portion of profits

SHAREHOLDER an owner of shares in a business company

DIVIDEND - a share of profits paid to people who own parts of company

BOND a written agreement or promise that it is against the law to break

EQUITY - the value of shares issued by a company

TO TRADE to buy and sell a particular item, product

GOVERNMENT STOCK document or certificate showing who owns shares
GUILT-EDGED SECURIRIY lent to a government

STOCK EXCHANGE a place where stock and shares are publicly bought and sold

LISTED COMPANY a company which is allowed to buy and sell shares on the stock exchange

TO BUY IN to buy a good supply of sth

JOBBER a wholesaler who deals with brokers

MARKET MAKER a broker or a company which participates permanently in stock exchange and quote prices

BROKER (STOCK-BROKER) a person who buys and sells things

RANGE to vary or extend between specified limits

COMMISSION an amount money paid to sb for selling goods which increases with the quantity of goods sold

FLOOR a place where the trading takes place

TO UPDATE to give sb the latest information about sth

TO QUOTE to give price for shares

QUOTATION a statement of the current price of stocks or commodities

INVESTMENT1 investing money
INVESTMENT2 a thing that is worth buying because it may be profitable or useful in the future

YIELD to receive income, known as dividend, from the invested companies


BRANCH a local office belonging a large firm or organisation
MERGER - the combining of two or more commercial companies
BANK STATEMENT - a printed record of all the money paid into and out of a cusomers bank account within a certain period
BILL a written statement of money owned for goods and services supplied
TRANSACTION the conducting of business
BALANCE an amount of money still owned after some payment has been made
POSTAGE an amount charged or paid for sending letters
INVOICE (make a) list of goods sold with the price charged
INTEREST money charged for borrowing money, or paid to smb who invests money
TO DEPOSIT put or store for safe keeping
CREDIT CARD a small plastic card that allows its holder to buy goods and services on credit and to pay on fixed intervals
CASH money in coins or notes
BALANCE SHEET a written record of money received and paid out, showing the difference between the two total amounts
ANNUAL REPORT account of statement coming or happening every year


JOINT VENTURE a business activity in which 2 or more companies have invested together
PARENT COOPERATION when a commercial company owns or controls one or more other companies
ALLIANCE the action or state of being joined or associated
BARTER to trade by exchanging sth for sth else without using money
ACQUISITION a when one company buys another one or part of another one
TAKEOVER the act of getting control over a company by buying over 50% of its shares
OCCASION when two or more companies, organizations join together to form a large company


franchisee someone who is given or sold a franchise

a) [countable] a business, company, or organization, especially one with many parts: Their huge interstate operation reportedly brings in $20 million a year.

manual1 adjective
1 involving the use of the hands: manual work | manual skills
2 operated or done by hand or without the help of electricity, computers etc: a manual typewriter | It would take too long to do a manual search of all the data.
manually adverb

1 [singular] INCREASE IN BUSINESS a rapid increase of business activity
[+ in]: a sudden boom in the housing market | consumer/investment/property etc boom: the post-war property boom | boom years/times: These are boom times for voluntary organizations.
see also boom town
2 [singular] WHEN STH IS POPULAR a period when something suddenly becomes very popular or starts happening a lot : jazz/aerobics etc boom: the jazz boom of the 1950s
3 SOUND [countable] a deep loud sound that you can hear for several seconds after it begins, especially the sound of an explosion or a large gun: the dull boom of the cannons
see also sonic boom
4 LONG POLE [countable]
a) a long pole on a boat that is attached to a sail at the bottom
b) a long pole used as part of a piece of equipment that loads and unloads things
c) a long pole that has a camera or microphone on the end
5 ON A RIVER [countable] something that is stretched across a river or a bay1 (1) to prevent things floating down or across it

outlet noun [countable]
1 a way of expressing or getting rid of strong feelings
[+ for]: I play racquet ball as an outlet for stress.
2 a shop, company, or organization through which products are sold : retail outlet: Benetton has retail outlets in every major European city.
3 a way through which something such as a liquid or gas can flow out
4 American English a power point British English

retail1 noun [uncountable]
the sale of goods in shops to customers, for their own use and not for selling to anyone else: goods for retail only | retail trade/business etc: workers in the retail trade | retail outlet (=a shop)

S1, W1

1 PLACE TO BUY THINGS [countable]
a) a place where people buy and sell goods, especially in an open area or a large building: There''s a good antiques market here on Sundays. | I usually buy all my vegetables at the market. | street market (=with a lot of different people selling things from tables, stalls etc in the street)

b) American English a shop that sells food and things for the home

2 the market
a) the stock market: Most analysts are forecasting a further downturn in the market. | play the market (=risk money on the stock market) | the markets (=stock markets around the world): The markets are nervous at the moment.

b) the total amount of trade in a particular kind of goods: Honda is trying to increase its share of the market. | the art/diamond/bond etc market: The art market is rather depressed. | the market in: the world market in aluminum

c) the system in which all prices and wages depend on what goods people want to buy, how many they buy etc: a naive belief in leaving everything to the market

3 on the market available for people to buy: There are thousands of different computer games on the market. | put a house/business etc on the market (=offer it for sale): We put our house on the market at the wrong time. | come onto the market (=become available for people to buy): a revolutionary new drug that has just come onto the market | on the open market (=generally available for people to buy without any official restrictions): In some areas, handguns were freely available on the open market.

4 COUNTRY/AREA [countable] a particular country or area where a company sells its goods or where a particular type of goods is sold: Our main overseas market is Japan. | cars intended for the domestic market
[+ for]: The main market for computer software is still in the US.

5 PEOPLE WHO BUY [singular] the number of people who want to buy something, or the kind of people who want to buy it
[+ for]: The market for specialist academic books is pretty small. | there is a market for (=people want to buy a product): There isn''t much of a market for second-hand mainframe computers.

6 be in the market for to be interested in buying something: Several terrorist groups were believed to be in the market for nuclear technology.

7 the job market/the labour market the number of jobs that are available: The job market has been badly hit by the recession.

8 a buyer''s/seller''s market a time that is better for buyers because prices are low, or better for sellers because prices are high
see also black market, flea market, corner the market corner2 (3), price yourself out of the market price2 (4)

license also licence British English verb [transitive usually passive]
to give official permission for someone to do something or for an activity to take place : be licensed to do sth: The restaurant is now licensed to sell alcohol.

S3, W3
noun [countable]

1 someone who has a lot of experience and whose job it is to give advice and training in a particular area: a management consultant

2 British English a senior hospital doctor who has a lot of knowledge about a particular kind of medical treatment; specialist (2) American English

working capital noun [uncountable]
the money that is available to be used for the costs of a business
see also venture capital
venture capital noun [uncountable]
money that is lent to someone so that they can start a new business

turnover noun

1 [singular] the amount of business done in a particular period, measured by the amount of money earned: an annual turnover of 5.6 million

2 [singular] the rate at which people leave an organization and are replaced by others: Low pay accounts for the high turnover of staff.

3 [singular] the rate at which a particular type of goods is sold: Supermarkets depend on a high turnover at low prices.

4 [countable] a small fruit pie (1): an apple turnover

5 [countable] American English a situation in a game of American football or basketball in which something happens so that one team loses the ball and the other team gets it

S1, W1
noun [countable]

1 someone who buys goods or services from a shop, company etc: Next customer please! | the customer complaints department | regular customer: keeping the shop''s regular customers happy | sb''s biggest/best customer (=someone who buys the most goods or services): We don''t want to lose them - they''re one of our biggest customers.
compare patron (2)

2 a cool customer informal someone who is always calm and very confident but in an unpleasant way

3 awkward/tricky etc customer someone who is difficult to deal with because they behave in a deliberately unhelpful way

superstore noun [countable]
British English a very large shop that sells many different types of goods, usually just outside a town

department store noun [countable]
a large shop that is divided into separate departments, each selling a different type of goods

chain store noun [countable]
one of a group of shops, all of which are owned by one organization; multiple store
multiple store noun [countable]
British English a word used especially in business meaning a chain store

margin noun [countable]

1 the empty space that goes down the side of a page : in the margin: She scribbled some notes in the margin.

2 the number of votes, or the amount of time or distance, by which an election or competition is won or lost : by a (wide/narrow) margin: The election was won by a margin of only votes.

3 the difference between what a business pays for something and what they sell it for
see also profit margin

4 on the margin(s) not belonging to the main or central part of a society, group, or activity: unemployed youths living on the margins of society

5 margin of error the degree to which a calculation can be wrong without affecting the final results

6 literary the edge of a forest, island, or other area

cut-price adjective

1 sold at less than the usual price: cut-price petrol
2 a cut-price shop, supermarket etc sells goods at reduced prices: a cut-price garage

warehouse noun [countable]
a large building for storing large quantities of goods

noun [countable]

1 a reduction in the cost of goods that you are buying: Do I get a discount if I buy a whole case of wine? | discount price/fare (=cheaper than the usual price) | discount store/shop/warehouse (=where you can buy goods cheaply)

2 at a discount
a) bought or sold for less than the usual price

b) informal not wanted or not regarded as valuable: a ridiculous place where intelligence is at a discount

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