Canada, federated country of North America, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean; on the northeast by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, which separate it from Greenland; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the south by the United States; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. It was formerly known as the Dominion of Canada. Occupying all of North America north of the conterminous United States, except Alaska, Greenland, Saint-Pierre Island, and the Miquelon Islands, Canada is the world's second largest country, surpassed in size only by Russia. It includes many islands, notably the Canadian Arctic Islands (Arctic Archipelago) in the Arctic Ocean. Among the larger members of this group, which in aggregate area is about 1,424,500 sq km (about 550,000 sq mi), are Baffin, Victoria, Ellesmere, Banks, Devon, Axel Heiberg, and Melville islands. Cape Columbia, a promontory of Ellesmere Island at latitude 83°06' north, is the northernmost point of Canada; the country's southernmost point is Middle Island in Lake Erie, at latitude 41°41' north. The easternmost and westernmost limits are delineated, respectively, by longitude 52°37' west, which lies along Cape Spear, Newfoundland, and longitude 141° west, which coincides with part of the Alaskan-Yukon frontier. Canada has a total area of 9,970,610 sq km (3,849,652 sq mi), of which 755,180 sq km (291,575 sq mi) is covered by bodies of fresh water such as rivers and lakes, including those portions of the Great Lakes under Canadian jurisdiction.

Canada contains great reserves of natural resources, notably timber, petroleum, natural gas, metallic minerals, and fish. It is also an important manufacturing country, and its major cities, such as Toronto, Montrйal, Vancouver, Ottawa (the country's capital), Edmonton, Calgary, and Winnipeg are bustling centers of commerce and industry. Most of Canada's inhabitants live in the southern part of the country, and vast areas of the north are sparsely inhabited. The country is divided into ten provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan) and two territories (Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory). A third territory called Nunavut, to be carved from the present Northwest Territories, will be created in 1999. The name Canada is derived from an Iroquoian term meaning “village” or “community.”

Land and Resources

The coast of the Canadian mainland, about 58,500 km (about 36,350 mi) in length, is extremely broken and irregular. Large bays and peninsulas alternate, and Canada has numerous coastal islands, in addition to the Arctic Archipelago, with a total insular coastline of some 185,290 km (some 115,135 mi). Off the eastern coast the largest islands are Newfoundland, Cape Breton, Prince Edward, and Anticosti. Off the western coast, which is fringed with fjords, are Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Southampton Island, covering 41,214 sq km (15,913 sq mi), and many smaller islands are in Hudson Bay, a vast inland sea in east central Canada.

Canada contains more lakes and inland waters than any other country in the world. In addition to the Great Lakes on the U.S. border (all partly within Canada except Lake Michigan), the country has 31 lakes or reservoirs of more than 1300 sq km (more than 500 sq mi) in area. Largest among these lakes are Great Bear, Great Slave, Dubawnt, and Baker in the mainland Northwest Territories; Nettilling and Amadjuak on Baffin Island; Athabasca in Alberta and Saskatchewan; Wollaston in Saskatchewan; Reindeer in Saskatchewan and Manitoba; Winnipeg, Manitoba, Winnipegosis, and Southern Indian in Manitoba; Nipigon and Lake of the Woods in Ontario; Mistassini in Quйbec; and Smallwood Reservoir and Melville in Newfoundland.

Among the great rivers of Canada are the Saint Lawrence, draining the Great Lakes, and emptying into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence; the Ottawa and the Saguenay, the principal affluents of the Saint Lawrence; the Saint John, emptying into the Bay of Fundy, between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; the Saskatchewan, flowing into Lake Winnipeg, and the Nelson, flowing from this lake into Hudson Bay; the system formed by the Athabasca, Peace, Slave, and Mackenzie rivers, emptying into the Arctic Ocean; the upper course of the Yukon, flowing across Alaska into the Bering Sea; and the Fraser and the upper course of the Columbia, emptying into the Pacific Ocean.

Physiographic Regions

Excluding the Arctic Archipelago, five general physiographic regions are distinguishable in Canada: The Canadian Shield, Appalachian, Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence, Interior Plains, and Cordillera. The largest region, designated either as the Canadian Shield or the Laurentian Plateau, extends from Labrador to Great Bear Lake, from the Arctic Ocean to the Thousand Islands in the Saint Lawrence River, and into the United States west of Lake Superior and into northern New York. This region of ancient granite rock, sparsely covered with soil and deeply eroded by glacial action, comprises all of Labrador (the easternmost part of the mainland, which is part of the province of Newfoundland), most of Quйbec, northern Ontario, Manitoba, and most of the Northwest Territories, with Hudson Bay in the center.

Eastern Canada consists of the Appalachian region and the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence lowlands. The former embraces Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and the Gaspй Peninsula of Quйbec. This region is an extension of the Appalachian mountain system (continuations of the Green Mountains of Vermont and the White Mountains of New Hampshire) and of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence lowlands region, covering an area of about 98,420 sq km (about 38,000 sq mi) in southern Quйbec and Ontario, is a generally level plain. This region includes the largest expanse of cultivable land in eastern and central Canada and most of the manufacturing industries of the nation.

Bordering the Canadian Shield on the west is the Interior Plains, an extension of the Great Plains of the United States. About 1300 km (about 800 mi) wide at the U.S. border, it narrows to about one-quarter of that size west of Great Bear Lake and widens again at the mouth of the Mackenzie River on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to about 500 km (about 300 mi). Within the Interior Plains are the northeastern corner of British Columbia, most of Alberta, the southern half of Saskatchewan, and the southern third of Manitoba. This region contains the most fertile soil in Canada.

The fifth and westernmost region of Canada embraces the uplifts west of the Interior Plains. The region belongs to the Cordillera, the vast mountain system extending from the southernmost extremity of South America to westernmost Alaska. In Canada, the Cordillera has an average width of about 800 km (about 500 mi). Part of western Alberta, much of British Columbia, the Inuvik Region and part of the Fort Smith Region of Northwest Territories, and practically all of Yukon Territory lie within this region. The eastern portion of the Cordillera in Canada consists of the Rocky Mountains and related ranges, including the Mackenzie, Franklin, and Richardson mountains. Mount Robson (3954 m/12,972 ft) is the highest summit of the Canadian Rockies, and ten other peaks reach elevations of more than 3500 m (about 11,500 ft). To the west of the Canadian Rockies is a region occupied by numerous isolated ranges, notably the Cariboo, Stikine, and Selkirk mountains, and a vast plateau region. Deep river valleys and extensive tracts of arable land are the chief features of the plateau region, particularly in British Columbia. Flanking this central belt on the west and generally parallel to the Pacific Ocean is another great mountain system. This system includes the Coast Mountains, an extension into British Columbia of the Cascade Range of the United States, and various coastal ranges. The loftiest coastal uplift is the Saint Elias Mountains, on the boundary between Yukon Territory and Alaska. Among noteworthy peaks of the western Cordillera in Canada are Mount Logan (5959 m/19,551 ft, the highest point in Canada and second highest mountain in North America after Mount McKinley), Mount Saint Elias (5489 m/18,008 ft), Mount Lucania (5226 m/17,147 ft), and King Peak (5173 m/16,971 ft); all are in the Saint Elias Mountains.


The Canadian Shield, which occupies the eastern half of Canada's landmass, is an ancient craton, or stable platform, made up of rocks that formed billions of years ago, during the Precambrian time of earth history. The shield, with its assemblage of granites, gneisses, and schists 2 to 4 billion years old, became the nucleus of the North American plate at the time that the earth's crust first began experiencing the tectonic forces that drive continental drift. See also North America: Geological History.

During the Paleozoic era, large parts of Canada were covered by shallow seas. Sediments deposited in these seas formed the sandstone, shale, and limestone that now surround the Canadian Shield. The Cambrian and Silurian systems are represented by great thicknesses of strata that appear in outcroppings in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland, along the Saint Lawrence Valley, and on the shores of Lake Ontario. Flat-lying beds of Paleozoic and younger rocks extend westward across the Interior Plains throughout the prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. In these areas, the rocks contain valuable deposits of oil and gas. In the Cordilleran region of western Canada, the rocks were subjected to tectonic forces generated by the collision of the North American plate with the Pacific plate. In the ensuing upheavals, which began during the Cretaceous period, mountain ranges rose throughout the Cordilleran region. The easternmost of these ranges, the Rocky Mountains, are similar in structure to the mountains of Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, having been built by uplift and folding of sedimentary rocks and, in lesser degree, by volcanic activity. The strata of which they are composed range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary and contain valuable deposits of base and precious metals as well as fossil fuels.

During the Quaternary period, nearly all of Canada was covered by vast ice sheets that terminated in the northern United States. Landscapes were profoundly modified by the erosive action of this vast mass of moving ice, particularly in the creation of Canada's many thousands of lakes and its extensive deposits of sand, clay and gravel.


Part of the Canadian mainland and most of the Arctic Archipelago fall within the Frigid Zone; the remainder of the country lies in the northern half of the North Temperate Zone. As a consequence, general climatic conditions range from the extreme cold characteristic of the Arctic regions to the moderate temperatures of more southerly latitudes. The Canadian climate is marked by wide regional variations. In the Maritime provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island), extremes of winter cold and summer heat are modified by oceanic influences, which also cause considerable fog and precipitation. Along the western coast, which is under the influence of warm ocean currents and moisture-laden winds, mild summers and winters, high humidity, and abundant precipitation are characteristic. In the Cordilleran region the higher western slopes of certain uplifts, particularly the Selkirks and the Rockies, receive sizable amounts of rain and snow, but the eastern slopes and the central plateau region are extremely arid. A feature of the Cordilleran region is the chinook, a warm, dry westerly wind that substantially ameliorates winter conditions in the Rocky Mountain foothills and adjoining plains, often causing great daily changes. For further climatic information, see articles on the individual provinces.

Natural Resources

Canada is richly endowed with valuable natural resources that are commercially indispensable to the economy. The country has enormous areas of fertile, low-lying land in the Prairie provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan) and bordering the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River in southern Quйbec and southern Ontario. Canadian forests cover about 49 percent of the country's land area and abound in commercially valuable stands of timber. Commercial fishing in Canada dates back nearly 500 years, and ocean waters, inland lakes, and rivers continue to support this industry. The mining industry of Canada has a long history of exploration and development that predates confederation in 1867. The Canadian Shield contains a wealth of minerals; the nation is also rich in reserves of crude petroleum and natural gas. The river and lake systems of the country combine with the mountainous topography to make hydroelectric energy one of the permanent natural assets of Canada. The wildlife of the country is extensive and varied.


The flora of the entire northern part of Canada is arctic and subarctic (see Tundra). A good part of the Maritime provinces is covered by forests of mixed hardwoods and softwoods. The Prairie provinces are comparatively treeless as far north as the Saskatchewan River system; prairie grasses, herbage, and bunchgrasses are the chief forms of vegetation. North of the Saskatchewan a broad belt of rather small and sparse trees extends from Hudson Bay to Great Slave Lake and the Rocky Mountains. Spruce, tamarack, and poplar are the principal species. The dry slopes and valleys of the Rocky Mountains support thin forests, mainly pine, but the forests increase in density and the trees in size westward toward the region of greater rainfall. On the coast ranges, especially on their western slopes, are dense forests of mighty evergreen trees. The principal trees are the spruce, hemlock, Douglas and balsam firs, jack and lodgepole pines, and cedar.


The animals of Canada are very similar or identical to those of northern Europe and Asia. Among the carnivores are several species of the weasel subfamily, such as the ermine, sable, fisher, wolverine, and mink. Other representative carnivores include the black bear, brown bear, lynx, wolf, coyote, fox, and skunk. The polar bear is distributed throughout the arctic regions; the puma, or American lion, is found in British Columbia. Of the rodents, the most characteristic is the beaver. The Canadian porcupine, the muskrat, and many smaller rodents are numerous, as are hare, and in the Interior Plains a variety of burrowing gopher is found.

Several varieties of Virginia deer are indigenous to southern Canada; the black-tailed deer occurs in British Columbia and parts of the plains region. This region is also the habitat of the pronghorn antelope. The woodland caribou and the moose are numerous and widely distributed, but the Barren Ground caribou is found only in the more northern areas, which are also the habitat of the musk-ox. Elk and bison are found in various western areas. In the mountains of British Columbia bighorn sheep and Rocky Mountain goats are numerous. Birds are abundant and diverse, and fish are numerous in all the inland waters and along all the coasts. Reptiles and insects are scarce, except in the far south.


Large areas of Canada are covered by boggy peat characteristic of the tundra and adjoining forest areas. This land is generally infertile and frequently mossy. A formation of rich dark brown and black prairie soils runs from southern Manitoba west across Saskatchewan and into Alberta, forming Canada's best farmland. The gray-brown soil of the St. Lawrence Basin and the Great Lakes is also good farmland. Only about 5 percent of Canada's land is suitable for farming, however, the remainder being too mountainous, rocky, wet, or infertile.




The racial and ethnic makeup of the Canadian people is diversified. About 35 percent of the population is composed of people of British origin. People of French origin total about 25 percent of the population. The vast majority of French-speaking Canadians reside in Quйbec, where they make up about three-fourths of the population; large numbers also live in Ontario and New Brunswick, and smaller groups inhabit the remaining provinces. French-speaking Canadians maintain their language, culture, and traditions, and the federal government follows the policy of a bilingual and bicultural nation. During the 1970s and 1980s the proportion of Asians among the Canadian population increased, and today those who count their ancestry as wholly Asian make up 8 to 10 percent of the population. More than two-thirds of the Asian immigrants live in Ontario or British Columbia. The remainder of the population is composed of people of various ethnic origins, such as German, Italian, Ukrainian, Netherlands Dutch, Scandinavian, Polish, Hungarian, Greek, and Native American.

Blacks have never constituted a major segment of the Canadian population, but their history has been an interesting one. Although Louis XIV of France in 1689 authorized the importation of slaves from the West Indies, black immigration into Canada has been almost entirely from the United States. Some Loyalists brought slaves north with them during and after the American Revolution (1775-1783). The British troops that burned Washington in the War of 1812 brought many slaves back with them to Halifax, Nova Scotia. However, Nova Scotia abolished slavery in 1787 and was followed six years later by Upper Canada, thus setting precedents for the whole British Empire. The presence of free soil in Canada was a major influence in the operation of the Underground Railroad, which, during the abolition campaign in the United States, transported many slaves into Canada, particularly to Chatham and Sarnia in Ontario. Blacks make up less than 2 percent of the Canadian population.

Indigenous peoples make up nearly 4 percent of Canada's inhabitants, including those who claim at least part-indigenous ancestry. These people belong predominantly to the Algonquian linguistic group; other representative linguistic groups are the Iroquoian, Salishan, Athapaskan, and Inuit (Eskimoan). Altogether, the indigenous people of Canada are divided into nearly 600 groups, or bands.

Population Characteristics

The population of Canada (1995 estimate) is about 28,537,000, compared with 27,296,859 counted in the census of 1991. The overall population density in the mid-1990s was about 3 persons per sq km (about 7 per sq mi).

Approximately three-quarters of the people of Canada inhabit a relatively narrow belt along the United States frontier, with about 62 percent concentrated in Quйbec and Ontario. Nearly 17 percent of the population lives in the Prairie provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan; about 9 percent in the Atlantic provinces, which include Newfoundland and the Maritime provinces of Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick; and about 12 percent in British Columbia. Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories are sparsely inhabited, having only about 0.3 percent of the total population. About 78 percent of the population is urban.

Political Divisions

Canada comprises ten provinces, each with a separate legislature and administration; the Yukon Territory, which is governed by a federally appointed commissioner, assisted by an elected executive council and legislature; and the Northwest Territories, which is governed by a federally appointed commissioner and an elected assembly. In descending order of population (1991 census) the provinces are the following: Ontario, Quйbec, British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island.

Principal Cities

Among the leading cities of Canada are Toronto, Ontario, a port and manufacturing city (Census Metropolitan Area population, 1991, 3,893,046); Montrйal, Quйbec, a port and major commercial center (3,127,242); Vancouver, British Columbia, a railroad, shipping, and forest-products manufacturing center (1,602,502); Ottawa, Ontario, the capital of Canada and a commercial and industrial city (Ottawa-Hull metropolitan area, 920,857); Edmonton, Alberta, a farming and petroleum center (839,924); Calgary, Alberta, a transportation, mining, and farm-trade center (754,033); Winnipeg, Manitoba, a major wheat market and railroad hub (652,354); the city of Quйbec, Quйbec, a shipping, manufacturing, and tourist center (645,550); Hamilton, Ontario, a shipping and manufacturing center (599,760); London, Ontario, a railroad and industrial center (381,552); Saint Catharines, Ontario, an industrial and commercial city (Saint Catharines-Niagara metropolitan area, 364,552); Kitchener, Ontario, a city of manufacturing industries (356,421); and Halifax, Nova Scotia, a seaport and manufacturing city (320,501).


The largest religious community in Canada is Roman Catholic. Nearly half of Canadians who are Roman Catholic live in Quйbec. Of the Protestant denominations in Canada the largest is the United Church of Canada, followed by the Anglican Church of Canada. Other important Protestant groups are the Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Pentecostal. Nearly 2 percent of the population are Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim and Jewish adherents each number about 1 percent. Immigration in recent years has brought a substantial number of Buddhists, Hindus, and Sikhs to the country. Nearly 13 percent of Canadians claim no religion.




Education and Culture

The educational system in Canada is derived from the British and American traditions and the French tradition, the latter particularly in the province of Quйbec. English or French is the language of instruction, and some schools provide instruction in both official languages. Each of the ten provinces has responsibility for establishing and maintaining its own school system. In Quйbec, the French-Canadian tradition is followed by the Roman Catholic schools. The province also maintains Protestant schools, however, which are widely attended. Although Canada does not have a central ministry of education, the federal government provides schools for children of Native Americans on reserves, inmates of federal penitentiaries, and the children of military personnel.


The earliest Canadian schools, which were conducted by French Catholic religious orders, date from the early 17th century. Higher education was inaugurated in 1635 with the founding of the Collиge des Jйsuites in the city of Quйbec. It was not until the transfer of Canada from French to British jurisdiction in 1763 that an educational system began to emerge that encompassed church, governmental, and private secular schools. The early 19th century saw the establishment of the large universities, beginning with McGill University in 1821 and followed by the University of Toronto in 1827 and the University of Ottawa in 1848. Since World War II ended in 1945, a notable expansion in higher education has occurred. Many new institutions have been founded, and the older universities have increased in size, scope, and influence. The federal and provincial governments fund the university system in Canada, and students pay only a small portion of the cost. Universities are still the predominant institutions offering higher education, but the number of nonuniversity postsecondary institutions, particularly community colleges, has increased sharply in recent decades.

Elementary and Secondary Schools

Education is generally compulsory for children from ages 6 or 7 to ages 15 or 16, depending on the province in which they live, and it is free until the completion of secondary school studies. In the early 1990s Canada had more than 16,000 elementary and secondary schools, with a total enrollment of nearly 5.3 million students.

Specialized Schools

In the early 1990s Canada maintained 19 specialized schools for the blind and the deaf. These institutions together enrolled about 2400 pupils, who were instructed by some 575 teachers. Canada had several schools for mentally handicapped children.

Nursing education, formerly concentrated at special schools attached to hospitals, has been transferred to community colleges, which numbered 203 in the early 1990s. Similarly, teacher training has been shifted from specialized institutions to colleges and universities.


In the early 1990s Canada had 69 degree-granting universities and colleges, which together enrolled some 572,900 full-time students. Among the country's larger universities are the following: the University of Alberta (1906) and the University of Calgary (1945), in Alberta; the University of British Columbia (1908) and Simon Fraser University (1963), in British Columbia; the University of Manitoba (1877); the University of Moncton (1864) and the University of New Brunswick (1785), in New Brunswick; Memorial University of Newfoundland (1925); Acadia University (1838) and Dalhousie University (1818), in Nova Scotia; Carleton University (1942), McMaster University (1887), the University of Ottawa (1848), the University of Toronto (1827), the University of Waterloo (1957), and York University (1959), in Ontario; the University of Prince Edward Island (1969); Concordia University (1974), Laval University (1852), McGill University (1821), the University of Montrйal (1878), and the University of Quйbec (1968), in the city of Quйbec; and the University of Saskatchewan (1907).

Cultural Life and Institutions

The federal government especially encourages the arts through the Canada Council, established in 1957, which awards fellowships and grants. It favors decentralizing policies that bring cultural resources within reach of the most isolated communities. Since 1972 it has supported a multicultural policy to reflect the varied influences that make up the mosaic of Canadian life, including the culture of aboriginal peoples.

Museums and Libraries

Of Canada's more than 2100 museums, archives, and historic sites, the most important are in the National Capital Region. These include, in Hull, Quйbec, the Canadian Museum of Civilization, which celebrates Canada's multicultural heritage; and, in Ottawa, the Canadian Museum of Nature (formerly the National Museum of Natural Sciences), the National Museum of Science and Technology, and the National Gallery of Canada. The latter exhibits European art, a growing collection of Asian art, and a large body of work by Canadians. The National Museum Policy (1972) has encouraged and supported the growth of regional museums.

The Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto has collections of art, life and earth sciences, and Canadiana. Among more specialized museums are Upper Canada Village, a restoration of 18th- and 19th-century buildings in Morrisburg, Ontario; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Museum, in Regina, Saskatchewan; and the Royal British Columbia Museum, in Victoria, which contains important displays of Native American artifacts.

The National Library of Canada, in Ottawa, issues the national bibliography and maintains union catalogs of the collections of more than 300 other libraries. Its holdings, including a comprehensive collection of Canadian newspapers, exceed 14.5 million items. The Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information, also in Ottawa, is the center for the dissemination of scientific and technical data. Provinces and cities have their own libraries. Particularly outstanding university libraries are those of McGill, Toronto, British Columbia, and Montrйal.

Theater and Music

The performing arts in Canada are supported by government and private grants. The National Arts Centre, in Ottawa, opened in 1969, has a resident symphony orchestra and theater companies in French and English. Visiting opera and dance companies perform there, and in summer its terraces along the Rideau Canal are the scene of band concerts and arts and crafts fairs.

A number of major theater, opera, dance, and musical groups are found in the large cities; these groups also tour the provinces and travel abroad. The chief theatrical centers are the cities of Quйbec, Montrйal, and Toronto. The theaters of these cities make an effort to present new Canadian plays as well as imports and classics. Opera companies include the Canadian Opera, in Toronto; two companies in Montreal; and six in the west—in Vancouver, Victoria, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, and Saskatoon. Among the principal dance companies are the National Ballet of Canada, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, and Les Grands Ballets Canadiens (Montrйal). The Toronto Dance Theatre presents modern dance. The prominent orchestras include the Montrйal Symphony, the Toronto Symphony, and the Vancouver Symphony.

Canadians and visitors also enjoy summer festivals, such as the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Ontario; the Shaw Festival at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario; and Cultures Canada, a series of multicultural events in Ottawa. Local traditions are preserved in the Highland Games on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia; the Sherbrooke Festival de Cantons (Quйbec), celebrating French-Canadian culture and cuisine; and the Ukrainian Festival in Dauphin, Manitoba. Discovery Day in Dawson, Yukon Territory, marks the 1896 discovery of gold. A large variety of smaller festivals are held throughout the country.


Until the early 20th century, Canada was primarily an agricultural nation. Since then it has become one of the most highly industrialized countries in the world. To a large extent the manufacturing industries are supplied with raw materials produced by the agricultural, mining, forestry, and fishing sectors of the Canadian economy.

Between 1973 and 1993 Canada's output of goods and services, or gross domestic product (GDP), increased in real terms by about three-quarters to C(Canadian)$704.8 billion (U.S.$546.3 billion). Federal government annual expenditures for the same year were C$167.5 billion, which exceeded the year's revenues, leaving a deficit of C$40.5 billion.


The Canadian economy depends heavily on agriculture, which employs about 4 percent of the labor force. In the early 1990s Canada had some 280,000 farms, which averaged 242 hectares (598 acres) in size. The annual value of farm output amounted to C$24.2 billion in 1993. Because of its abundant production and relatively small population, Canada is a leading exporter of food products. Farms in Canada are about equally divided between crop raising and livestock production. Wheat is the most important single crop, and the Prairie provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan form one of the greatest wheat-growing areas of the world, with an average annual production of more than one-fifth of the world's supply. One-half of Canada's wheat is grown in Saskatchewan. The prairie provinces also grow a large percentage of the coarse grains and oilseeds produced in Canada. After wheat, the major cash receipts from field crops are obtained from sales of canola, vegetables, barley, maize, potatoes, fruits, tobacco, and soybeans. Annual output totals in the early 1990s included (in metric tons) wheat, 29.9 million; barley, 10.9 million; maize, 5.6 million; canola, 3.7 million; potatoes, 2.9 million; and oats, 3.0 million.

Livestock and livestock products account for about 50 percent of yearly farm cash receipts. Ranching prevails in the west, and the raising of livestock is a general enterprise, except in parts of Alberta and Saskatchewan, where beef cattle form a specialized industry. Ontario and Quйbec rank highest in production of dairy products, with about 71 percent of the national output; in poultry farming, with 64 percent; and in egg production, with 54 percent. Quйbec produces 82 percent of the maple products, and Ontario produces 89 percent of the nation's tobacco crop.

In early 1990s the livestock population of Canada included about 14.7 million cattle and calves, of which approximately 1.2 million were milk cows; 10.7 million hogs; and 949,000 sheep and lambs. Fruit farming is done in Ontario, British Columbia, and Quйbec, with apples contributing about 40 percent of the total value. Berries, peaches, grapes, and cherries are other important crops. Tomatoes, onions, carrots, turnips, peas, and beans are major vegetable crops; Ontario produces about one-half of the total vegetable crop, followed by Quйbec and British Columbia.

Forestry and Fishing

Forestry is a major source of Canada's wealth, and forest products annually account for nearly 14 percent of Canadian exports. Forests cover some 4.2 million sq km (some 1.6 million sq mi) of the country, and the provincial and federal governments own about 90 percent of this land. Canada has more than 150 varieties of native trees; about 80 percent of them are softwoods, such as spruce, Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, pine, and balsam. Canada's annual timber harvest in the early 1990s was about 186 million cu m (about 6.6 billion cu ft). Forestry sustains a complex and diversified export and domestic industry, employing more than 250,000 people. Canada leads the world in newsprint production, with about 28 percent, and accounts for more than one-half of world exports; most of the Canadian export is sent to the United States. The sawmill and planing-mill industry is centered in British Columbia. Quйbec and Ontario lead the nation in pulp and paper production.

The fishing resources of the country are harvested from the northwestern Atlantic and northeastern Pacific oceans and from the most extensive bodies of fresh water in the world. In the early 1990s the number of people employed in fishing or fish-processing operations was approximately 114,600. Canada is a leading exporter of fish products, with annual exports in the early 1990s valued at about C$2.6 billion, or about three-quarters of the country's annual production. The United States receives more than one-half of exports, followed by Japan and the nations of the European Union. The catch, which totaled about 1.2 million metric tons annually in the early 1990s, includes herring, redfish, scallops, salmon, flatfish, lobsters, and crab. Northern cod, formerly a large part of the catch, has been under a fishing ban imposed by federal government order in 1992, owing to the near-extinction of the fish. The government has provided emergency assistance payments and job retraining to people thrown out of work by this action in the Maritimes, where the economic impact has been heavy.


Fur trapping had an important role in Canada's early economic development, and the practice continues today. The value of trapped and farm-raised pelts rose from $25.6 million in the 1960-1961 time period to C$147.4 million in 1986-1987, but declined rapidly in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Production was worth just C$42.2 million in 1990-1991. Farming operations consist mainly of raising mink, which contributes more than 90 percent of the annual value of pelts from fur farms, with fox accounting for virtually all the remainder. The fur farms are mainly concentrated in Ontario, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and British Columbia. In the early 1990s, 1.9 million pelts of all types were harvested annually. Trapping is carried on primarily in northern Canada; Ontario, Quйbec, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba are the main producers of wildlife pelts (see Fur Industry).


The mining industry in Canada has a long history of exploration. The most significant period of growth, however, has been since World War II ended in 1945, with mineral discoveries in almost every region of the country. Mining is an important source of national wealth; in 1992 annual mineral production was valued at about C$36 billion. The Canadian mining industry is strongly oriented toward exports, and Canada is one of the world's leading mineral exporters. The United States, the European Union, and Japan are the leading purchasers of Canadian minerals.

The growth of the mining industry is due in part to petroleum and natural gas discoveries in western Canada; development of huge iron-ore deposits in Labrador and Quйbec; the discovery and development of large deposits of nickel in Ontario and Manitoba, uranium in Ontario and Saskatchewan, and potash in Saskatchewan; extraction of sulfur from natural gas in the western provinces; development of copper, lead, and zinc deposits; and the production of gold in Ontario, Quйbec, British Columbia, and Northwest Territories. The leading minerals, in order of value, are crude petroleum (591.2 million barrels annually in the early 1990s), natural gas (118.9 billion cu m/4.2 trillion cu ft), natural gas by-products (26.6 million cu m/939 million cu ft), gold (157,600 kg/347,300 lb), copper (744,700 metric tons), zinc (1.2 million metric tons), nickel (189,100 metric tons), coal (64.6 million metric tons), and iron ore (32.8 million metric tons). These minerals together typically account for more than four-fifths of the value of annual mineral production. Alberta leads the country by a wide margin in the yearly value of mineral output; it is usually followed by Ontario, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Quйbec, and Manitoba. Canada usually leads the world in the annual production of asbestos and zinc and ranks second in production of nickel, potash, and uranium. Other minerals in which the country is among the leading producers are cobalt, copper, gold, gypsum, iron ore, lead, molybdenum, natural gas, platinum-group metals, silver, sulfur, and titanium concentrates. The mining industry is subject to market fluctuations that adversely affect dependent local economies.


The Canadian economy is largely dependent on manufacturing, and industry, which employs about 15 percent of the labor force, and accounts for about 17 percent of the annual gross domestic product. Manufacturing has grown remarkably since 1945. In the early 1990s the leading manufactures, measured by value of output, were transportation equipment, food products, paper and allied products, chemicals and chemical products, primary metals, refined petroleum and coal products, electrical and electronic products, fabricated metal products, wood, and printed materials. The most important manufacturing provinces are Ontario, which now accounts for more than one-half the manufacturing production of Canada, and Quйbec, which accounts for nearly one-fourth. The chief manufacturing cities include Toronto, Montrйal, Hamilton, Vancouver, Windsor, Winnipeg, and Kitchener.


Endowed with many fast-flowing rivers, Canada is the world's leading producer of hydroelectricity. More than 85 percent of the country's hydroelectric output is generated in the provinces of Quйbec, Ontario, Newfoundland, and British Columbia. In 1979 the first of three planned hydroelectric stations on La Grande Riviиre, near James Bay in Quйbec, began operations; when completed in 1985, these installations, owned and operated by Hydro-Quйbec, had a capacity of 10.3 million kilowatts, more than any other hydroelectric complex in Canada or in the United States. The powerhouses on La Grande Riviиre constitute the first phase of a larger hydroelectric project that is projected (see James Bay Project). Churchill Falls, in the Labrador region of Newfoundland, is another major Canadian hydroelectric facility.

Since the early 1950s, Canada has sought to use its abundant resources of natural uranium to generate electricity. The first nuclear power plant, a demonstration station at Rolphton, Ontario, was completed in 1962. A huge nuclear plant was opened at Pickering, Ontario in the early 1970s. In addition, a great complex of nuclear facilities on the Bruce Peninsula, in Ontario, owned and operated by Ontario Hydro, was completed in the early 1990s. No new nuclear facilities are under construction or in the design stages.

In the early 1990s Canada had an installed electricity-generating capacity of 112 million kilowatts. During that period, the annual output of electricity was about 511 billion kilowatt-hours, of which 63 percent was provided by hydroelectric plants, 17 percent by nuclear power plants, and 20 percent by conventional plants using fossil fuels. Canada exports about 10 percent of its energy production to the United States.


The natural variety of seasons and scenic wonders of Canada draw large numbers of tourists. In the spring, blossom festivals flourish across Canada, especially in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia and the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. Noteworthy is the Ottawa Festival of Spring (Tulip Festival) in May. Alberta's Calgary Exhibition and Stampede in July is world-famous. The Niagara Grape and Wine Festival and autumn-color tours in central Ontario and the Laurentian Mountains of Quйbec are among the other attractions. In the winter the abundant snowfall has been exploited; skiing centers are expanding. Also attracting visitors are more than 730,000 sq km (more than 282,000 sq mi) of natural areas preserved in Canada's federal, marine, and provincial parks.

Tourism has become one of the leading industries of Canada. In the early 1990s the country was visited by some 36.8 million tourists annually. Expenditures were about C$25 billion a year, with U.S. residents spending some 46 percent of the total.

Currency and Banking

The unit of currency in Canada is the Canadian dollar, which consists of 100 cents (C$1.36 equals U.S.$1; 1996). The Bank of Canada has the sole right to issue paper money for circulation. Chartered commercial banks operated more than 7600 domestic branches in the early 1990s and had combined assets exceeding C$635 billion. Under the Bank Act of 1980, no Canadian subsidiary of a foreign bank may hold assets equal to more than 16 percent of the assets of the entire banking system. A major revision of the Bank Act in 1992 permitted banks, trust companies, and insurance companies to diversify into each other's markets. In the mid-1990s there were 9 domestic and 54 foreign-owned banks operating in Canada. Most foreign-owned and major domestic banks have their head offices in Toronto; a few are based in Montrйal. Trust and mortgage loan companies, provincial savings banks, and credit unions also provide banking services. Securities exchanges operate in Toronto, Montrйal, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver.

Foreign Trade

From the 16th to the 18th century, the leading Canadian items of export were fish and furs. During the 19th century, the exploitation of the white-pine forests of the Laurentian region was initiated, and timber became the staple item of export. With the improvement of railroad lines early in the 20th century, the western prairie regions were opened, and wheat became the chief item of export. The mining industry began to grow at about the same time; valuable mineral deposits were discovered in the Laurentian region (previously mining had been confined largely to iron and coal in Nova Scotia, and gold, silver, and copper in British Columbia), and exploitation of the spruce timber of northern Ontario and Quйbec began. Manufacturing industries developed to supply and process the goods of the three primary industries, agriculture, forestry, and mining. The advance of hydroelectric and thermoelectric technology contributed immensely to the economic expansion in northern Canada.

The per capita foreign trade of Canada ranks among the highest of any nation in the world. The growth since 1945 of Canada's external trade has been remarkable. The value of exports in 1946 was C$2.34 billion; this figure increased to C$3.16 billion in 1950, to C$5.39 billion in 1960, to C$16.82 billion in 1970, and to C$64.3 billion in 1980. By 1994 the export total was C$219.4 billion (U.S. $162.5 billion). Imports showed a comparable increase, from C$1.93 billion in 1946 to C$3.17 billion in 1950, to C$5.50 billion in 1960, to C$13.95 billion in 1970, and to C$58.5 billion in 1980. The import total rose to C$202.3 billion (U.S. $149.9 billion) in the mid-1990s.

Most of Canada's foreign trade is with the United States, which typically takes about four-fifths of Canada's exports and supplies more than two-thirds of its imports. The value of the Canada-United States merchandise trade is greater than between any other two countries in the world. Components of Canadian exports are increasingly manufactured items; while resource exports such as minerals, timber, and grains are still important, their share of total export volume is decreasing. Leading export items to the United States are motor vehicles and motor-vehicle parts, an exchange which began in the mid-1960s under an agreement providing for free trade in transportation equipment. The cross-border exchange increased particularly after Canada and the United States entered into a free-trade agreement in 1989. The agreement was superseded in 1994 when the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was approved, which admitted Mexico into the pact and continued trade liberalization policies.

In the early 1990s principal trading partners (in addition to the United States) for exports were Japan, Great Britain, Germany, China, the Netherlands, South Korea, and France. Chief sources for imports were Japan, Great Britain, Germany, Mexico, France, Taiwan, and China.

The leading products Canada sells abroad include automobiles, trucks, motor-vehicle parts, crude petroleum, lumber, newsprint, wood pulp, wheat, industrial machinery, natural gas, office machines, and aluminum. Principal imports are motor-vehicle parts, automobiles, general purpose and specialized machinery, chemicals, computers, crude petroleum, telecommunications equipment, and fruit and vegetables.


The natural water and mountain barriers of Canada, combined with a dispersed population, necessitate efficient and economical transportation facilities. Since the earliest explorations of the country, water transportation has been indispensable. The Saint Lawrence-Great Lakes navigation system extends about 3769 km (about 2342 mi) from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence into the center of the continent. The opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959 contributed greatly to industrial expansion. In the early 1990s cargo carried through the Montrйal-Lake Ontario section of the seaway exceeded 32 million metric tons. Nearly 59,000 vessels engaged in foreign trade entered and cleared Canadian ports annually; cargo unloaded totaled some 69.1 million metric tons, and about 153.8 million metric tons were loaded. The ports in Vancouver, Sept-Оles, Montrйal, Port-Cartier, Quйbec, Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Thunder Bay, Prince Rupert, and Hamilton together handled most of the total. Canadian merchant vessels of 1000 gross tons or more numbered 59 in the early 1990s, with a total deadweight tonnage of nearly 640,000.

The government-owned Canadian National Railways is the largest public utility in Canada and operates nearly one-half of the 85,563 km (53,169 mi) of track in the country. The system serves all ten provinces and the Northwest Territories. The privately owned Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) serves all of Canada except Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and the two territories; it operates 21,490 km (13,354 mi) of railroad track. Nationwide passenger rail transport is provided by VIA Rail Canada, founded in 1977 to take over the passenger services of Canadian National Railways and CP Rail. In 1989, in response to the growing rate of airplane and automobile travel, the federal government announced cuts of more than 50 percent in passenger services, which are heavily subsidized. Further cuts were announced in 1993.

The total length of the federal and provincial highway and road system in Canada in the early 1990s was about 290,194 km (about 180,327 mi). The Trans-Canada Highway, completed in 1962, stretches from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Victoria, British Columbia. In the early 1990s about 13.1 million passenger cars, 3.7 million commercial vehicles, and 324,000 motorcycles and mopeds were registered.

Two major airlines, Air Canada and Canadian Airlines International, maintain a broad network of domestic and international routes. Other smaller carriers are licensed. Of the more than 510 airfields certified by Transport Canada, the busiest are Lester B. Pearson International Airport, in Toronto; Vancouver International Airport; Dorval and Mirabel international airports, near Montrйal; and Calgary International Airport.


The publicly owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) owned and operated 65 originating radio stations, including AM, FM, and short-wave, and 29 originating television stations in the early 1990s. Broadcasts are in English, French, and a variety of Native American languages. A total of 695 private originating radio stations (362 AM, 333 FM) and 116 private television stations were operating. Of the 10.1 million households in Canada in the early 1990s, 99 percent had radios and televisions; about 88 percent had access to cable television systems.

In the early 1990s more than 15.9 million telephone lines were in service in Canada. Most domestic telephone service is provided by the Stentor Alliance, a consortium of regional networks that includes nine telephone companies. Seven of the firms are privately owned; the other two are owned and operated by the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Quйbec-Tйlйphone is an associate member. Also within this consortium is Telesat Canada, which was established in 1969 by the federal government and private firms to provide commercial communications via satellite. In 1972 it launched the world's first stationary communications satellite designed for domestic commercial use. Called Anik I, after an Inuit word for “brother,” the satellite helped provide television broadcasting and telephone service to remote northern Canada. Numerous satellites have been put into orbit since that time. Teleglobe Canada provides international telephone service.

In the early 1990s Canada had 106 daily newspapers, with an aggregate daily circulation of 5.8 million copies. Widely read newspapers include the Calgary Herald and Edmonton Journal, in Alberta; The Province and Vancouver Sun, both in Vancouver, British Columbia; Winnipeg Free Press, in Manitoba; Chronicle-Herald, in Halifax, Nova Scotia; The Globe and Mail, Toronto Star, and Toronto Sun, all in Toronto, Ontario; and The Gazette, Le Journal Montrйal, and La Presse, all in Montrйal, Quйbec. The Globe and Mail receives national distribution. The country also was served by many other publications, including Maclean's, a weekly news magazine; Chвtelaine, a women's journal published in English and French; and Canadian Geographic. The government-controlled Canada Post provides mail delivery throughout the country.


The civilian labor force in Canada during the early 1990s was made up of approximately 13.8 million people. Employment was concentrated in services (73 percent), and in industry (23 percent). Approximately 533,000 people worked in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and trapping.

Union membership in the early 1990s exceeded 4 million people, or nearly one-third of all workers. About 60 percent of the union members belonged to organizations affiliated with the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC); many of these unions were also linked with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations. Smaller union groupings included the Quйbec-based Confederation of National Trade Unions (CNTU), the Centrale des Syndicats Dйmocratiques, and the Canadian Federation of Labour.




Canada is mainly governed according to principles embodied in the Constitution Act of 1982, which gave the Canadian government total authority over its constitution. Previously, the British North America Act of 1867 and subsequent laws had reserved some constitutional authority with the British Parliament. Canada is a federal union, with a division of powers between the central and provincial governments. Under the original 1867 act, the central government had considerable power over the provinces, but, through amendments to the act and changes brought by practical experience, the provincial governments have increased the scope of their authority. However, considerable tension continues to exist between the federal government and the provincial governments over the proper allocation of power.

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, added by the passage of the 1982 Constitution Act to the country's constitution, guarantees to citizens “fundamental freedoms,” such as those of conscience and the press; “democratic rights” to vote and seek election; “mobility,” “legal,” and “equality” rights to move throughout Canada, to enjoy security of person, and to combat discrimination; and the equality of the French and English languages. The charter changed the Canadian political system by enhancing the power of the courts to make or unmake laws through judicial decisions. It also contains the so-called “notwithstanding” clause, which allows Parliament or the provincial legislatures to designate an act operative even though it might clash with a charter provision. Although the constitution and charter apply uniformly throughout Canada, the province of Quйbec has never formally signed the agreement.

The head of state of Canada is the sovereign of Great Britain. In theory, the head of the national government is the governor-general, who represents the British monarch; the actual head of government, however, is the prime minister, who is responsible to Parliament.

Central Government

The central government of Canada exercises all powers not specifically assigned to the provinces; it has exclusive jurisdiction over administration of the public debt, currency and coinage, taxation for general purposes, organization of national defense, fiscal matters, banking, fisheries, commerce, navigation and shipping, energy policy, agriculture, postal service, census, statistics, patents, copyright, naturalization, aliens, indigenous peoples affairs, marriage, and divorce. Among the powers assigned to the provincial governments are education, hospitals, provincial property and civil rights, taxation for local purposes, the regulation of local commerce, and the borrowing of money. With respect to certain matters, such as immigration, the federal and provincial governments possess concurrent jurisdiction.

The nominal head of the government is the governor-general, the representative of the British crown, who is appointed by the reigning monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister of Canada. The governor-general adheres to the advice of the majority in the House of Commons (the lower chamber of the legislature) in appointing the prime minister, who is the effective head of government, and follows the prime minister's wishes in appointing the Cabinet. The Cabinet consists of as many as 40 members, most of whom are ministers presiding over departments of the federal government. The cabinet has no formal legal power but submits its decisions to Parliament.


The Canadian Parliament consists of two houses, the Senate and the House of Commons. Senators are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister to terms that last until the age of 75; there are normally 104 senators (6 from Newfoundland; 10 each from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; 4 from Prince Edward Island; 24 each from Quйbec and Ontario; 6 from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia; and 1 each from the Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory). In 1990 the Conservative federal government found that proposed legislation was being held up by the Liberal-controlled Senate. Invoking a measure in Canada's consitution that had never been used before, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney added 8 new senators, thereby increasing the total number of senators to 112 and achieving a Conservative majority. The number of senators has since returned to 104.

Members of the House of Commons are elected in 295 federal electoral districts whose boundaries are periodically adjusted to reflect population growth or redistribution. Each district contains, on average, about 100,000 constituents. Federal elections are held at the prime minister's discretion, but must be called within a five-year period; in practice, they are called about every four years. Laws are first debated in the House of Commons, but must also be approved by the Senate and signed by the governor-general before coming into effect. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons; if no majority exists, the party with the most seats in Parliament leads a “minority government.”


The legal system in Canada is derived from English common law, except in Quйbec, where the provincial system of civil law is based on the French Code Napolйon. The federal judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court of Canada, made up of a chief justice and eight puisne (associate) judges, three of whom must come from Quйbec. It sits in Ottawa and is the final Canadian appellate court for all civil, criminal, and constitutional cases. The next leading tribunal, the Federal Court of Canada, is divided into a Trial Division and an Appeal Division. It hears a variety of cases, notably involving claims against the federal government. Provincial courts are established by the provincial legislatures, and, although the names of the courts are not uniform, each province has a similar three-tiered court system. Judges of the Supreme Court and the Federal Court and almost all judges of the higher provincial courts are appointed by the federal government.

Provincial and Territorial Government

The government of each of Canada's ten provinces is in theory headed by a lieutenant governor, who represents the sovereign of Great Britain and is appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the federal prime minister. Like the governor-general, however, the lieutenant governor has little actual power, and in practice the chief executive of each province is the premier, who is responsible to a unicameral provincial legislature. Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories are both governed by federally appointed commissioners, assisted in the Northwest Territories by a legislative assembly and in Yukon Territory by an elected council and legislature. A third territory, Nunavut, will be formally created in 1999 and will have a similar governmental makeup to the other two territories.

Political Parties

The strongest national political parties in Canada during the 20th century traditionally have been the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party, also known as Tories. However, a voter backlash in the early 1990s has resulted in great upheaval in the Canadian political picture, and established groups such as these two parties have lost much of their powers. Although they agree on many issues, the Liberals have generally supported government intervention to promote the general welfare, while the Conservatives have favored free enterprise and the limited state. The smaller New Democratic Party, by contrast, endorsed social democracy and the rights of organized labor, and found support in Ontario and the western provinces. The new Alberta-based Reform Party has become an increasingly significant vehicle of conservative sentiment in English Canada, outside the Maritime provinces. The Bloc Quйbйcois, a splinter from the Conservatives, has risen in prominence by espousing Quйbec sovereignty. To a degree, this party acts as the federal arm of the Parti Quйbйcois, a Quйbec-based party that held power in the province from 1976 to 1985.

Health and Welfare

All levels of government share the responsibility for social welfare in Canada. The federal government administers comprehensive income-maintenance measures, such as the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Assistance Plan, old-age security pensions, family allowances, youth allowances, and unemployment insurance, in which nationwide coordination is necessary. The federal government gives aid to the provinces in meeting the costs of public assistance; it also provides services for special groups, such as Native Americans, veterans, and immigrants. Administration of welfare services is mainly the responsibility of the provinces, but local authorities, generally with financial aid from the province, often assume the provision of services. Provincial governments have the major responsibility for education and health services in Canada, with municipalities also assuming authority over matters delegated to them by provincial legislation. Health and Welfare Canada is the chief federal agency in health matters.

The Medical Care Act, passed in 1966, has permitted the federal government to contribute about half the cost of the Medical Care Insurance Program (Medicare), with the respective province contributing the remainder. The program establishes the following minimum criteria: (1) comprehensive coverage, to cover all medically required services rendered by physicians and surgeons; (2) universal availability to all residents; (3) portability, to cover temporary or permanent change in residence to another province; and (4) nonprofit basis.


The Canadian armed forces are integrated and are headed by the chief of the defense staff, who reports to the civilian minister of national defense. Under the defense staff are five major commands, organized according to function: maritime command, land force command, air command, communication command, and headquarters northern area command. Canada is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and until 1994 allocated air and land forces to support NATO in Europe. Canada participates jointly with the United States in the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD; see Defense Systems). It also contributes troops to United Nations peacekeeping operations. In the early 1990s the Canadian armed forces included about 78,100 people.
























Географическое положение и природные условия

Канада является второй по величине страной в мире (9 970 610 кв. км.), которую превосходит по размерам только Россия. Канада расположена на север от США, между Атлантическим и Тихим океанами. С запада на восток она достигает 7700 км, а с севера на юг - 4600 км. Почти 90% всего населения Канады живут в пределах 160 км от границы с США.

Столица Канады - город Оттава в провинции Онтарио.

Канада разделена на десять провинций и три территории, каждая из которых располагает собственной столицей (в скобках): Альберта (Эдмонтон), Британская Колумбия (Виктория), Остров Принс-Эдуард (Шарлоттаун), Манитоба (Виннипег), Нью-Брансвик (Фредериктон), Новая Шотландия (Галифакс), Нунавут (Иквалут), Онтарио (Торонто), Квебек (Квебек), Саскачеван (Реджина), Новая Земля (Св. Джон), Северо-Западные Территории (Еллоунайф) и Юкон (Уайтхорс).

Канада граничит на юге и на западе с США. Протяженность границ (включая Аляску) - 8893 км. Протяженность морского побережья - 243 791 км.

Климат Канады варьируется от умеренного на юге до арктического на севере.

Хотя большая часть земли занята озерами и заросшими лесами низинами, в Канаде есть и горные гряды, равнины и даже небольшая пустыня. Великие Равнины, или прерии, покрывают Манитобу, Саскачеван и части провинции Альберта. Теперь это главные сельскохозяйственные угодья страны. Западная Канада известна своими Скалистыми Горами, в то время как на востоке расположены важнейшие города страны, а также Ниагарский Водопад. Канадский Щит, древний гористый регион, образованный более 2,5 миллиардов лет назад, покрывает большую часть севера страны. В арктическом регионе можно найти только тундру, которая севернее разбивается на острова, покрытые льдом почти круглый год.

Самой высокой точкой Канады является гора Логан высотой в 5950 м над уровнем моря.

Основными природными ископаемыми являются никель, цинк, медь, золото, свинец, молибден, поташ, серебро, уголь, нефть, природный газ.

Пригодная для возделывания земля составляет всего 5% территории Канады. Под пастбища используются еще 3% земли. Леса и лесопосадки занимают 54% всей территории Канады. Орошаемая земля составляет всего 7100 кв. км.

Общие сведения

Население Канады насчитывает всего 30,3 миллионов человек (данные 1997 года), причем большая его часть живет на узкой полосе вдоль границы с США шириной в 160 км и длиной в 6 000 км. Росту населения в равной мере способствует иммиграция и естественный прирост населения (число новорожденных минус число умерших). В период с 1991 по 1996 года население Канады возрастало ежегодно на 1,1%, что является самым высоким показателем из стран Большой Семерки. Канада представляет приблизительно 0,5% населения земного шара. По оценкам экспертов, в 2026 году Канада будет насчитывать 36,2 миллиона жителей.

Большинство канадцев, 76,6%, живут в городах, а 23,4% - в сельской местности. Согласно последней переписи населения, 31% населения Канады (8,61 миллиона человек) живут в трех крупнейших городах страны - Торонто, Монреале и Ванкувере.

Продолжительность жизни в Канаде - 74,9 лет для мужчин и 81,4 года для женщин. Это один из самых высоких показателей в мире.

По статистике, средний размер семьи в Канаде равен 3,1 человека, в который включены 1,3 детей. Размер семьи остается неизменным с 1991 года.

Плотность населения по провинциям и территориям:



Площадь (км. кв.)

Население (тыс. чел.)

Плотность населения

Новая Земля




Новая Шотландия








Остров Принс-Эдуард
























Британская Колумбия








Северо-Западные Территории












Население провинций


В провинции Альберта проживает 2,4 миллиона канадцев, чьи корни не так-то легко проследить. До 1880-х годов провинцию населяли в основном коренные жители Северной Америки, но позднее их превзошли по численности поселенцы из западноевропейских стран. В 1881 году на территории, которая позднее стала Альбертой, проживала едва ли тысяча выходцев из Европы. Десять лет спустя их число превосходило 17,5 тысяч. Во время волны иммиграции в 1890-х - 1920-х годах, которую активно поощряло правительство Канады, в провинцию прибывали иммигранты из европейских стран, в результате чего в 1921 году в ней проживало почти 585 тысяч человек.

После Второй Мировой Войны ситуация изменилась кардинальным образом. С начала 60-х годов 20 века в Альберте поселялись выходцы из большинства стран мира, включая Азию и Карибские острова. На сегодняшний день лишь 44% жителей Альберты - потомки британских поселенцев; другими крупными этническими группами являются немцы, украинцы, французы, скандинавы и датчане. Согласно переписи населения в 1991 году, около 150 тысяч жителей провинции являлись представителями северных народов или метисами. Немногочисленные этнические группы составляют оставшиеся 24% населения. В Альберте говорят по-английски.

Приблизительно две трети населения провинции моложе сорока лет, что делает Альберту одной из самых молодых провинций в развитых странах. Этому, в частности, способствует высокий уровень иммиграции молодых профессионалов из других стран мира. Около 80% всех жителей Альберты живут в городах и пригородах, причем более половины живет в двух крупнейших городах провинции - Эдмонтоне (столице) и Калгари.

Британская Колумбия

Большинство жителей Британской Колумбии - потомки первых поселенцев с Британских Островов, однако население провинции составляют иммигранты практически всех национальностей. Более 100 тысяч жителей провинции - потомки тысяч китайцев, которые принимали участие в строительстве железной дороги на территории Британской Колумбии в конце 19-го века. В дополнение к этому, более 60 тысяч жителей провинции родом из Индии, а около 16 тысяч - из Японии.

Численность представителей коренного населения материка стала значительно расти в последние годы и в 1991 году перевалила за 165 тысяч человек.

Британская Колумбия продолжает привлекать иммигрантов: более 40 тысяч человек поселяются в провинции каждый год, поэтому ее население насчитывает более 4 миллионов человек - 12% всего населения Канады. Почти 60% всех жителей живут в Виктории (столица провинции) и Ванкувере, а также их пригородах. В Ванкувере насчитывается 1,8 миллиона жителей - это третий по величине город Канады.


Долгие годы население Манитобы состояло в основном из выходцев с Британских Островов, однако новая иммиграционная политика изменила соотношение национальностей и теперь в провинции можно найти представителей большинства народов мира. В Манитобе также проживает большое количество франко-говорящих канадцев.

Хотя Манитоба - одна из самых малонаселенных провинций Канады, она является важным центром нескольких этнических групп. К примеру, в Манитобе живет самое большое количество украинцев за пределами Украины. Более 115 тысяч жителей провинции - индейцы или метисы.

Около 60% всего населения Манитобы живет в столице - Виннипеге. Второй по величине город, Брэндон, расположен на юго-западе провинции.


Население Нью-Брансвика превышает 750 тысяч человек. В ней проживает около 35% франко-говорящих канадцев, и это единственная официально двуязычная провинция Канады.

Первые поселенцы Нью-Брансвика прибывали из Франции, Англии, Шотландии и Ирландии, а позднее и из Германии, Скандинавских стран и Азии. Муниципальный округ Новая Дания хвастается самой многочисленной датской колонией в Северной Америке.

Индейцы в провинции насчитывают лишь 12 тысяч человек.

Побережье и долины рек провинции особенно населены; Св. Джон - самый крупный город провинции, за которым следуют Монктон и Фредериктон, столица Нью-Брансвика.

Новая Земля

Жители Новой Земли - предки выходцев из юго-западной Англии и южной Ирландии, которые иммигрировали в провинцию в конце 18-го - начале 19-го веков. Освоение земель в основном зависело от мест рыбного промысла, и этот порядок сохраняется и по сей день: полуостров Авалон и северо-западная часть Новой Земли остаются самыми населенными территориями провинции.

Св. Джон, столица острова, - самый крупный город провинции с населением, превышающим 172 тысячи человек.

Новая Шотландия

Более 80% населения Новой Шотландии причисляют себя к потомкам жителей Британских Островов. На втором месте находятся французы - около 18% жителей, а оставшиеся 2% приходится на долю этнических немцев, датчан, поляков, итальянцев и евреев. За счет иммиграции растет количество китайцев, выходцев из Азии, Африки и Восточной Европы.

Около 22 тысяч жителей Новой Шотландии - индейцы.

В Галифаксе и его пригородах живет около 320 тысяч всех жителей провинции, а в Сиднее - приблизительно 116 тысяч.

Северо-Западные Территории

На сегодняшний день в Северо-Западных Территориях проживает около 40 тысяч человек, из которых к северным народам относятся только 48%. Большинство жителей территории живут в небольших сообществах. Еллоунайф, столица территории, насчитывает всего 15 тысяч жителей.


С 1779 года волны поселенцев из Англии, Шотландии и Ирландии следовали друг за другом, осваивая новые территории в долине реки Св. Лаврентия и населяя страну. По сей день, иммиграция играет важную роль в росте населения и благосостояния Онтарио, где теперь проживают большие группы итальянского, немецкого, китайского, датского, португальского, индийского и польского происхождения.

В 1991 году в провинции насчитывалось почти 250 тысяч индейцев и метисов.

Онтарио является самой населенной провинцией в Канаде - в ней живет около 11 миллионов человек. Несмотря на то, что английский - наиболее распространенный язык в Онтарио, франкофоны играют важную роль в культурной жизни провинции и являются самым многочисленным языковым меньшинством.

Остров Принс-Эдуард

В 1996 население Острова Принс-Эдуард составляло чуть более 136,5 тысяч человек. Из этого числя 62% живут в сельской местности. Шарлоттаун, с населением в 33 тысячи человек - единственный город.

Приблизительно 80% населения - потомки ирландцев и шотландцев. Около 15% - французы по национальности, но лишь 5% населения провинции считает французский родным языком.

Население острова довольно молодо - 38% всех жителей не достигли 25-летнего возраста.


Из семи миллионов жителей пять - французы, всего 350 тысяч - выходцы с Британских Островов и около 137 тысяч - индейцы и метисы.

Итальянцы и выходцы из Восточной Европы составляют наиболее крупные национальные меньшинства в Квебеке, однако с 60-х годов 20 века значительно увеличился приток иммигрантов из Португалии, Гаити, стран Латинской Америки и Юго-Восточной Азии. С конца Второй Мировой Войны в Квебек, особенно в крупнейший город провинции Монреаль, переехало более 650 тысяч иммигрантов из 80 стран мира.

На французском разговаривает 83% жителей Квебека, на английском - около 17%.


Метисы, потомки европейцев и индейцев, были среди первых поселенцев в провинции, многие из которых перебрались в Саскачеван из Манитобы. Благодаря дешевой земле сельское хозяйство постепенно вытеснило торговлю мехами. Значительная волна иммиграции в провинцию началась в 1899 году и закончилась в 1929 году.

На сегодняшний день население провинции составляет более 1 млн. человек. Саскачеван - единственная провинция Канады, где большинство жителей не являются потомками англичан или канадцев. Наиболее крупными этническими группами являются немцы, украинцы, скандинавы, датчане, поляки и русские.

Реджина и Саскатун - два наиболее крупных города провинции, в которых проживает почти треть всего населения Саскачевана.


Обширные леса Юкона издревле были населены атапасканами, чьи культурные и языковые традиции существуют по меньшей мере тысячу лет. В наши дни выжило лишь шесть племен атапасканских индейцев: кутчин, хан, тутчоун, тлингит, каска и тагиш.

На Юконе живут около 31 тысячи людей. 23% жителей территории - индейцы. Почти 60% всего населения живет в Уайтхорс, столице территории.

Общие сведения

В соответствии с ежегодной статистикой ООН, Канада с 1993 г. по 1998 г. занимает ПЕРВОЕ место в мире в списке стран, считающихся лучшими в мире для проживания по совокупности важнейших критериев (общий уровень жизни, экология, культура и искусство, образование, уровень преступности и т.д.).

Канада - одна из самых экологически чистых стран мира. В докладе ООН за 1998 г., посвященном рейтингу уровня жизни населения во всех странах мира, Канада заняла ПЕРВОЕ место, оставив позади ВСЕ страны мира. Россия в списке заняла 72-е место. При этом Россию намного опередили такие государства как Барбадос (24-е место), Антигуа и Барбуда (29-е место), Багамские острова (32-е место), Тринидад и Тобаго (40-е место), Словакия (42-е место).

Данный рейтинг ООН составлялся в докризисный для России период (до августа- сентября 1998 г.). Если бы он составлялся сейчас, Россия заняла бы одно из последних мест среди двухсот стран, являющихся членами ООН.

Макроэкономические показатели Канады выглядят следующим образом. При населении около 31 млн. человек (на начало 1997 г.) валовой внутренний продукт был равен 633,2 млрд. ам. долл. (1996 г.), т.е. на душу населения он составлял около 21 тыс. долл. (Для сравнения: ВНП России в 1996 ф. г. составлял 457 млрд. долл.; на душу населения - около 3000 долл.)

Канадская экономика, как и любая капиталистическая экономика, развивается неравномерно, хотя в 90-е годы для нее характерен умеренный ежегодный рост темпами в 2-4%. Темпы инфляции в эти же годы существенно упали и составили, например, в 1996 г. всего лишь 0,3%. Небесполезной будут и цифры о
структуре канадской экономики, которые необходимо запомнить. В сфере услуг занято 75% трудоспособного населения Канады, на предприятиях работает около 14%, в сельском хозяйстве - 4%, в строительстве - 3%, в других сферах - 4%.

В январе 1993 г. канадские статистики заявили, что спад в Канаде закончился и уровень потребления достиг наивысшего значения за последние три года. Канаду обычно считают источником сырья: зерна, нефти, леса и минералов. Однако за последние годы структура канадской экономики сильно изменилась. Экспорт сырья стал меньше и составляет сейчас 1/9 канадского экспорта (сравните с 40% в 1963 г.).

Чуть более 13% канадских рабочих - безработные (сравните с 29% в 1946 г.). Сфера обслуживания стремительно растет, сейчас в ней занято более 70% рабочей силы Канады. Это создает дефицит определенной профессии и ведет к перераспределению капитала. В связи с этим изменяются образовательные приоритеты, и появляются новые программы переквалификации.

В 1985 году была принята программа, поощряющая иностранные инвестиции. Как результат, Канада стала привлекательна для зарубежного капитала. Благодаря этой программе инвестиции в канадскую промышленность с 1980 по 1988 год увеличились с 62 миллионов до 110 миллионов канадских долларов. Вливания в экономику Канады дали ей новые технологии, новые области производства, новые рабочие места, новые технические и управленческие кадры

Система образования в Канаде

Образование преследует две главные цели: дать людям возможность развить свои способности и обеспечить общество знанием и умением, которые должны послужить его интересам. Система образования Канады основана на сбалансированном подходе к достижению этих двух не всегда сочетающихся между собой целей. Охватывающая все аспекты образования и вместе с тем доступная каждому, канадская система образования отражает уверенность жителей страны в важности качественного образования.

Образовательная система в Канаде состоит из десяти провинциальных и двух территориальных систем, которые включают государственные, частные и католические школы. По закону дети обязаны посещать школу с 6 или 7 лет до 15 или 16 лет. Чтобы обеспечить этот процесс, все государственные средние школы финансируются из бюджета. В Квебеке многие колледжи и техникумы также финансируются государством, поэтому они берут за обучение только небольшой регистрационный взнос. Большинство же других высших учебных заведений берет плату за обучение.

В отличие от других развитых стран, у Канады нет общегосударственной системы образования: по конституции каждая провинция сама занимается этим вопросом. Каждая провинциальная система образования, хоть и в чем-то схожая с остальными, отражает религию, историю и культуру этой провинции. Провинциальные главы департаментов по образованию, которые возглавляет избираемый министр, устанавливают стандарты, утверждают предметы и финансируют образовательные организации. Ответственность за управление начальными и средними школами возложена на местные выборные школьные советы или комиссии. Советы планируют бюджеты школ, нанимают учителей и устанавливают школьное расписание в соответствии с требованиями провинциального законодательства.

Центральное правительство играет жизненно важную роль в системе образования. Оно обеспечивает финансовую поддержку высшим учебным заведениям и преподаванию двух официальных языков страны - английскому и французскому. Вдобавок, оно отвечает за образование коренных жителей Канады, военных и членов их семей, а также заключенных. В целом, центральное правительство оплачивает до 20% ежегодных затрат страны на образование.

В частности, правительство спонсирует программу студенческих займов, которая предназначена для студентов, не обладающих достаточными денежными средствами, чтобы получить высшее образование. По этой программе студенты получают кредит со сниженными процентными ставками. В провинциях также существуют собственные системы студенческих займов.

Канадское правительство также приняло программу студенческих грантов, по которым в 2000-2010 годах гранты на обучение получат более чем 100 000 студентов. Размер гранта составляет в среднем 3000 долларов в год, а каждый из студентов может получить до 15 000 долларов за четыре учебных года. Эти гранты смогли бы уменьшить вполовину расходы на обучение.

Вообще, Канада стоит на первом месте по уровню расходов на образование в расчете на душу населения. Высокий уровень образованных людей в Канаде (более половины жителей страны продолжают учиться после достижения 15 лет) успешно поддерживает и повышает уровень жизни канадцев и репутацию страны как места, где ценят и поощряют интеллектуальный рост.

Система здравоохранения Канады

Канадское здравоохранение - одна из немногих сфер, которой по праву гордится государство. Канадская система здравоохранения финансируется государством и лучше всего описывается как система страховых и медицинских планов десяти провинций и трех территорий. Эта система известна под названием Medicare и обеспечивает бесплатное или практически бесплатное медицинское обслуживание всем гражданам Канады.

Такая структура была разработана потому, что медицинское обслуживание находится в ведомстве местных, провинциальных властей, а не федерального правительства. Системы здравоохранения каждой провинции или территории связаны едиными принципами, которые устанавливаются на общегосударственном уровне.

Управление и обеспечение медицинскими услугами - зона ответственности каждой отдельной провинции или территории. Провинции или территории планируют, финансируют и оценивают обеспечение больничным уходом, услугами терапевтов и других специалистов, некоторыми лекарствами.

Роль федерального правительства в системе здравоохранения ограничивается установлением и соблюдением общего принципа Medicare, частичное финансирование медицинских программ провинций или территорий и выполнение других функций, указанных в конституции Канады. Одной из таких функций является непосредственный медицинский уход за особыми группами канадских граждан, в которые включают ветеранов, коренных жителей Канады, живущих в резервациях, военных и служащих Королевской Канадской Конной Полиции. Другими функциями являются профилактика и защита здоровья населения и пропаганда здорового образа жизни.

Система здравоохранения Канады в основном опирается на терапевтов первичного медицинского ухода, которые составляют около 51% всех практикующих терапевтов в Канаде. Они являются передаточным звеном между пациентом и формальной системой здравоохранения, и контролируют доступ к большинству врачей-специалистов, больничному уходу, диагностическим проверкам и выписываемым по рецепту лекарствам. Такого семейного врача можно менять неограниченное количество раз по совету знакомых и перемене настроения.

В Канаде, однако, не существует системы "общественной медицины", где врачи работают непосредственно на правительственную структуру. Большинство докторов имеют свою собственную частную практику и наслаждаются высокой степенью автономии. Некоторые врачи работают в больницах или местных оздоровительных центрах. Врачам-частникам государство оплачивает услуги в зависимости от оказанной помощи, причем плату такие врачи получают непосредственно из бюджета провинции или территории. Терапевты, не имеющие частной практики, получают либо установленный оклад, либо плату в зависимости от количества оказанных медицинских услуг.

Когда канадцы нуждаются в медицинском уходе, они обращаются к врачу-терапевту или в клинику по своему выбору и предъявляют ему карточку медицинского страхования, которая выдается всем легальным гражданам и жителям страны. Канадцы не платят непосредственно за оказанные медицинские услуги, и им не нужно заполнять различные формы на услуги, покрываемые страховым полисом. На такие услуги не существует пределов в денежном выражении или дополнительных платежей.

Зубные врачи работают независимо от системы здравоохранения, кроме тех случаев, когда необходима неотложная помощь хирурга-стоматолога. Аптеки тоже являются независимыми от государства организациями.

Более 95% всех канадских больниц работают по принципу некоммерческих частных организаций, управляемых местным советом директоров, организациями добровольцев или муниципалитетами.

В дополнение к общегосударственной системе медицинского страхования, провинции и территории также обеспечивают медицинским обслуживанием ту часть населения, которая нуждается в дополнительных медицинских услугах - пожилых людей, детей и безработных. Эти дополнительные пакеты медицинских услуг часто включают бесплатные лекарства, стоматологическую помощь, услуги окулиста, различные приспособления для инвалидов (протезы, кресла-каталки и т.д.) и другое.

Хотя провинции и территории обеспечивают дополнительными услугами некоторые слои населения, эта сфера услуг находится в частном секторе, а значит, жители страны непосредственно оплачивают их из собственного кармана. Разумным в таком случае является приобретение страховки, покрывающей большую часть расходов на услуги стоматолога, окулиста и т.д. Такие страховки часто включают в компенсационный пакет, который предлагается наряду с заработной платой.

При переезде из одной провинции в другую жители Канады по-прежнему могут рассчитывать на бесплатное медицинское обслуживание.

В первый год оплаты медицинского страхового полиса новоиспеченные иммигранты платят по максимальному тарифу. Со второго года вступает в силу положение, по которому, если доход не превышает определенной суммы, иммигранта освобождают от страховых взносов либо снижают их до символической суммы. При расчете такого рода взносов во внимание принимается годовой доход жителя, а не суммы на его счетах в банке, так что формальные безработные могут претендовать на бесплатное медицинское обслуживание.

Здравоохранение в Канаде финансируется в основном налогами, как местными, так и государственными подоходными налогами и налогами на прибыль с предприятий. Некоторые провинции используют для финансирования системы здравоохранения налоги с продаж и доходы от лотереи. Эти дополнительные доходы, однако, не играют большой роли в финансировании здравоохранения Канады.

Чтобы укрепить систему здравоохранения, в 1999 году правительство объявило, что провинции и территории получат дополнительные 11,5 миллиардов долларов за период с 1999 до 2004 года на дополнительные нужды системы. Грядет реформа, но ее суть - только усовершенствование существующего порядка вещей, а не создание принципиально нового способа страхования и обеспечения медицинским уходом жителей Канады.

Одним из самых важных индикаторов успеха существующей системы здравоохранения является здоровье канадцев. Продолжительность жизни канадцев составляет 78,6 лет (81,4 года для женщин и 75,8 лет для мужчин), что является одним из самых высоких показателей среди развитых стран. Уровень младенческой смертности в 1996 году составил 5,6 на 1000 живорожденных младенцев - один из самых низких показателей в мире.

В США, в отличие от Канады, медицинское обслуживание - платное. Если вы попадете в госпиталь в США, то вам не избежать проблем. Средняя плата за сутки пребывания в госпитале составляет около 800$, причем в эту сумму не входят сами медицинские услуги: операция, больничный уход, лекарства и т.д.

Лицам, имеющим страховой полис, оплачивается до 80% стоимости пребывания в больнице, остальные 20% приходится оплачивать самому. Однако, американцы умудряются экономить на больничном уходе, сокращая затраты до минимума.

К примеру, в госпиталь американские больные прихватывают с собой подушку, простыни, одежду и тапочки, что обошлось бы им в дополнительные 300$ в день. Рекомендуют также не есть больничную пищу, а просить родственников приносить им еду. Ложиться на осмотр в больницу следует в четверг, чтобы не оплачивать выходные, когда анализы не производятся, однако же плата за пребывание в больнице взимается. Настоятельно рекомендуется тщательно изучить предъявляемый счет, так как в него часто вписывают не оказанные вам услуги. Если же вам необходимо лечь в больницу, сравните расценки нескольких больниц - разница может оказаться весьма существенной.

В идеале лучше вообще не болеть. Именно поэтому здесь уделяется такое большое, даже болезненное внимание собственному здоровью. Очень многие бегают трусцой, посещают спортивные клубы и т.д.



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